Category: 1953


Aran Islands, toy dogs, Heine (1953)

September 8th, 2011 — 6:51am

Aran Islands or Arran Islands, (p. 58)
in Galway Bay, Co. Galway, Ireland. The three islands are Inishmore, Inisheer, and Inishmaan. They are barren, and living conditions are primitive.

toy dogs. (p. 1278)
Many small dogs have been developed from the larger breeds for the sole purpose of being pets. One of the smallest of these is the Chihuahua, which weighs from 1 to 6 lb. It has a round skull, wide-set eyes, and large, erect ears, and varies in color from white, through shades of tan, to black. [...] Easily recognized by its flat nose and round, protruding eyes is the Pekingese (or Pekinese). Its coat is straight and silky and may be black, tan, fawn, brown, or white. [...] One variety of poodle is a toy dog.

Heine, Heinrich, (p. 543)
1797-1856, German author, of Jewish parentage. His Buch der Lieder [book of songs] (1827) placed him among the greatest German poets. Lyrics have musical, folklike quality (as in “Lorelei”), often spiced with subtle irony or dissonant endings, have attracted many composers, notably Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Brahms. His prose travel sketches [...] show the same mixture of lyric emotion and corrosive wit. [In Paris,] he died after eight years of tragic sickness, confined to his “mattress grave”. [...] Nearly all his work has been translated to English, although his verse often defies translation.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Osage orange, Dostoyevsky, Strasbourg (1953)

September 8th, 2011 — 6:04am

Osage orange, (p. 930)
deciduous spiny tree (Maclura pomifera) native to Ark. and Texas, useful as a hedge. It has inedible orangelike fruits. The flexible, durable wood was a favorite bow wood of the Osage indians.

Dostoyevsky, Feodor Mikhailovich, (p. 349)
1821-81, Russian novelist, one of the giants of modern literature. He won his first success with Poor Folk (1845). Arrested 1849 for membership in a Fourierist circle, he was sentenced to death; while he was waiting for death, his sentence was commuted to hard labor in Siberia. The shock of the experience and the hardship of Siberian life (described in The House of the Dead, 1862) aggravated his epilepsy and caused him to turn to religion. [...] His chronic financial difficulties were increased by his passion for gambling. His novels are characterized by deep psychological insight; compassion for all men, even the vilest of whom he thought capable of redemption; and morbid preoccupation with guilt and crime. [...]

Strasbourg, (p. 1220-1221)
Ger. Strassburg [...], cap. of Bas-Rhin dept., E France, on the Ill near its junction with the Rhine; cultural and commercial cap. of Alsace. [...] [S]eat of a university (founded 1538) and of the Council of Europe. Its importance dates from Roman times. Its bishops ruled a considerable territory as princes of the Holy Roman Empire, but Strasbourg itself became a free imperial city (13th cent.), ruled by its guild corporations. Here medieval German literature reached its flower in Gottfried von Strassburg, and here Gutenberg may have invented the printing press. [...]

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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The Five Boros of New York City (1953)

September 8th, 2011 — 12:59am

New York, (p. 887)
city (area with water surface c. 365 sq. mi.; land only, 299; pop. 7,891,957), SE N.Y., largest city in U.S., on New York Bay at mouth of Hudson R. Comprised of five boroughs, each coextensive with a county: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Richmond (see Staten Island). The metropolitan area (1952 census, preliminary total pop. 12,831,914) includes industrial and residential parts of SE N.Y. and NE N.J. Many bridges and tunnels link the boroughs. With a magnificent natural harbor and over 500 mi. of water front, New York is largest port in the world. Extensive industries, chiefly consumer goods, are led by mfg. of clothing, textiles; printing and publishing; food and metal processing. Leading U.S. commercial (since 1840) and financial (stock exchange founded 1792) metropolis, it is a world center of banking (Bank of New York founded 1784 under Alexander Hamilton) and trade. With its vast array of cultural and educational resources, famous shops and restaurants, places of entertainment, striking architecture, colorful national neighborhoods, and its rich historic background, New York is almost unparalleled. Began with settlement (New Amsterdam) made by Dutch on Manhattan isl. in 1625. British seized control 1664. City divided in its loyalties, but Washington’s troops defended it until after battle of Long Island in Revolution. State cap. until 1797, first U.S. cap. under the Constitution (1789-90); Pres. Washington was inaugurated here. Until 1874, when portions of Westchester co. were annexed, city’s boundaries were confined to present-day Manhattan. Charter of 1898 set up five boroughs [NB: print text misspells "boroughts"] of Greater New York. Flatiron Bldg., first skyscraper, completed 1902; first subway, 1904. Many planning and administrative bodies (e.g., Port of New York Authority, 1921; Municipal Housing Authority, 1934) have been set up to cope with problems of the vast metropolis. Seat of permanent UN hq.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Five Boros: Queens (1953)

September 8th, 2011 — 12:06am

Queens, (p. 1044)
borough (land area 108 sq. mi.; pop. 1,550,849) of New York city, SE N.Y., W end of Long Isl. adjoining Brooklyn borough. Separated from Manhattan and the Bronx by East R. (mainly bridges, e.g. Queensboro Bridge, built 1909, which stimulated borough’s greatest growth; and tunnel connections); on S is Jamaica Bay, separated from the Atlantic by Rockaway peninsula (c. 12 mi. long; resorts and commuters’ communities). First settled by Dutch 1635; old Queens co. estab. 1683; divided 1898 into Queens and Nassau counties, when Queens also became a New York city borough (largest in area). Mainly residential as in communities of Flushing, with Flushing Meadows park (site of New York World’s Fair in 1939-40, later site of General Assembly meetings of the UN) and Queens Col. (see New York, College of the City of); and Forrest Hills (has West Side Tennis Club where national and international matches are held). Heavily industrialized in area of Long Island City (shipping facilities on East R.; rail yards; consumer commodities); also at Astoria and Jamaica (important railroad transfer point, with extensive business and residential sections). Has two municipal airports, both administered by Port of New York Authority – LaGuardia (558 acres; opened 1939) and New York Internatl. Airport (4,900 acres; opened 1948; sometimes called Idlewild). Here are Jamaica and Aqueduct race tracks.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Five Boros: Brooklyn (1953)

September 7th, 2011 — 7:50am

Brooklyn. (p. 171)
1 Village (pop. 2,568), SW Ill., on the Mississippi above East St. Louis. An all-Negro town. Post office is Lovejoy. 2 Borough (land area 71 sq. mi.; pop. 2,738,175), of New York city, SE N.Y., on SW end of Long Isl. adjoining Queens borough. Settled 1636-37 by Walloons and Hollanders; hamlet of Breuckelen estab. c. 1645; absorbed various settlements (e.g., Flatbush, a 17th-cent. Dutch village, now a residential section) until it became coextensive with Kings Co. (estab. 1683); became a New York city borough 1898. Separated from downtown Manhattan by East R. (many bridges, e.g., Brooklyn Bridge, and tunnels), from Staten Isl. by the Narrows of New York Bay. Though largely residential, borough has important port facilities – New York Naval Shipyard (commonly Brooklyn Navy Yard), Bush Terminal – and industrial establishments (machinery, textiles, paper, chemicals, shoes, processed foods). Seat of Brooklyn Col. (see New York, College of the City of); Pratt Institute; Long Isl. Univ. (nonsectarian; coed. [NB: print text misses period]; chartered 1926, opened 1927); St. John’s Univ. (R.C., Vincentian; partly coed.; opened 1870, chartered 1871); Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences; and Long Isl. Historical Society. Here are Prospect Park (see Long Island, Battle of); Ebbets Field (home of Brooklyn Dodgers); Coney Isl., farmed beach resort and amusement center; and many noted churches. 3 City (pop. 6,317), NE Ohio, a S suburb of Cleveland.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Five Boros: Manhattan (1953)

September 4th, 2011 — 5:46am

Manhattan. (p. 765)
1 City (pop. 19,056), NE Kansas [...] 2 Borough (land area 22 sq. mi.; pop. 1,960,101) of New York city, SE N.Y., coextensive with New York co. Composed chiefly of Manhattan isl. (c. 12 mi. long and 2 mi. wide at greatest width), but also including islands in East R. and in New York Bay (Governors Island; Ellis Island; Bedloe’s Isl., with Statue of Liberty); bounded on W by Hudson R., NE and N by Harlem R. and Spuyten Duyvil Creek. Many bridges, tunnels, ferries link it to the other boroughs and to N.J. Dutch West India Company bought Manhattan from Manhattan Indians in 1626 for trinkets worth $24; first known as New Amsterdam, it became New York under the English 1664; its boundaries were those of New York city until 1874, when several Westchester co. communities were inc. into city; became a New York city borough 1898. Commercial, cultural, financial heart of the city, with extensive and diversified mfg., tremendous wholesale and retail trade, major distribution facilities (rail, ship, truck), banking and finance establishments. Here are Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Museum of Natural History, Museum of Modern Art; hq. of New York Public Library; numerous theaters (theatrical center of the country) and institutions of music, Columbia University, parts of College of the City of New York and of New York University, New School for Social Research, Juilliard School of Music, theological seminaries and medical schools, Cooper Union; Trinity Church (chartered 1697), Saint Patrick’s Cathedral, Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, Riverside Church, Temple Emanu-El. Famous areas: Harlem, Greenwich Village, the Bowery; streets: Broadway, Fifth Avenue, Wall Street; parks: the Battery, Central Park, Fort Tryon Park (with the Cloisters). Some of the much-visited buildings are: Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, Jumel Mansion, and UN hq.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Five Boros: Staten Island (1953)

September 4th, 2011 — 2:45am

Staten Island (p. 1212)
(57 sq. mi.; pop. 191,555), SE N.Y., in New York Bay, forming (with small adjacent islands) Richmond borough (since 1898) of New York city and Richmond co. of N.Y. state. N and W, bridges cross to N.J. over Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill; ferries connect with Manhattan (NE) and Brooklyn. Generally residential, with some semirural sections and resort beaches (SE shore). Industries (shipbuilding and repairing, oil refining, lumber milling) mainly in N. Trade centers are St. George, Stapleton (site of first U.S. free port), Port Richmond. Staten Isl. visited by Henry Hudson 1609; permanent community estab. by 1661. Early buildings include Billopp (or Conference) House (built before 1688), where Lord Howe negotiated with Continentals in 1776; Church of St. Andrew (founded 1708); Garibaldi House (Italian liberator lived here in 1850s).

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Five Boros: Bronx (1953)

September 4th, 2011 — 2:23am

Bronx, the, (p. 170-171)
northernmost borough (land area 41 sq. mi.; pop. 1,451,277) of New York city, SE N.Y. Settled 1641 under Dutch West India Co., became a New York city borough in 1898 and a co. of N.Y. state in 1914. On peninsula NE of Manhattan and S of Westchester co.; bounded on W by Hudson R., SW by Spuyten Duyvil Creek and Harlem R., S by East R., and E by Long Isl. Sound. Many bridge and tunnel connections to Manhattan and Queens. Mainly residential, though industrialized along Harlem R. Numerous parks include Bronx (zoo, botanic gardens), Van Cortlandt and Pelham Bay. Seat of Fordham University, Manhattan Col. (R.C., Christian Brothers; for men; opened as academy 1849, chartered as college 1863); parts of New York University, and Hunter Col. (see New York, College of the City of). Has Yankee Stadium and Poe cottage.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Berlin, Marlowe, Directoire style (1953)

September 3rd, 2011 — 11:20pm

Berlin, (p. 124-125)
[...] former cap. of Germany and of Prussia; N Germany, in Brandenburg (from which it is administratively separate), on the Spree and Havel rivers. City area (344 sq. mi.) includes large forests and lakes. Until its virtual destruction in World War II Berlin was second largest city of Europe; political, economic, cultural center of Germany. [...] Originating in two Wendish villages, Berlin and Kölln (merged 1307), city rose as member of the Hanseatic League; became cap. of Brandenburg (15th cent.) and of Prussia (1701); underwent phenomenal growth after becoming cap. of Germany. Has been occupied by Russo-Austrian forces (1760); by the French (1805); and by the Allies (1945-). [...] Berlin experienced a vigorous intellectual and artistic revival in postwar period. [...]

Marlowe, Christopher, (p. 776)
1564-93, English dramatist and poet. Leader of a “radical” group, he was accused of atheism and blasphemy, and possibly a plot led to his being stabbed to death by a drinking companion. For dramatic power and development of blank verse into most expressive English meter, he is regarded as greatest Elizabethan playwright next to Shakespere. [...]

Directoire style, (p. 341)
in French interior decoration and costume, the style of the Directory (1795-99); transition between Louis XVI and Empire styles. Departed from ornateness of aristocratic regime and emphasized classic design (esp. Pompeian forms). Furniture was more massive, with painted or waxed wood surfaces. [...] Wallpaper and plain walls replaced tapestries and wainscoting. Women wore tight skirts, low necklines, and high waistlines.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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Kant, Paris, kingbird (1953)

September 3rd, 2011 — 10:20pm

Kant, Immanuel, (p. 649)
1724-1804, German philosopher, one of the greatest figures in the history of philosophy. He lived a quiet life at Königsberg, becoming professor of logic and metaphysics at the university and quietly evolving a system of thought that influenced all succeeding philosophers in one way or another. [...] In [his works] he set forth intricate and well-knit arguments that defy brief summary. [...]

Paris, (p. 952)
[...] Intellectually and artistically, Paris led the W world in the 17th-19th cent. and in some respects retains a unique position (“city of light“). [...] A fishing hamlet at the time of Caesar’s conquest, ancient Lutetia Parisiorum soon grew to an important Roman town. It became (5th cent. A.D.) a cap. of the Merovingian kings but was devastated by Norse raids in the 9th cent. With the accession (987) of Hugh Capet, count of Paris, as king of France, Paris became the national cap. It flowered as a medieval commercial center and as the fountainhead of scholasticism but suffered severely during the Hundred Years War (English occupation 1420-36). Throughout its history, Paris displayed a rebellious and independent spirit. [...]

kingbird, (p. 662)
North American flycatcher. Eastern species, also called tyrant flycatcher and bee martin, eats some bees but chiefly noxious insects. It is dark gray above, light gray and white below with a white-banded black tail and an orange crest.

ex:
The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopedia (in 2 volumes),
The Viking Press / Columbia University Press: New York 1953

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